Kristen Gehrman, Writer


Kristen Gehrman 

Translator | Writer | Editor

French / Dutch / German to English

October 6, 2016

Reflections: Drongo Talenfestival 2016


Last weekend, I had the pleasure of attending the Drongo Talenfestival in Utrecht. I thought to myself, well, tickets are only €10, I’ll go have a look around. But I must say that it was much more than I expected! For a festival broadly focused on the many facets of the language industry in The Netherlands (an industry that can sometimes feel overly commercialized), I was really impressed by how informative and thought-provoking it was.

I was initially drawn to the Lab corner of the hall, where professors and PhD students were presenting their linguistic research and inviting visitors to participate. Interactive experiments addressed questions such as How do babies learn their first language? How do you build with LEGO in a second language? Why can we understand half-uttered words? and How do we distinguish between literal and figurative meanings of words? As for me, I participated in a sign language experiment where I had to guess the meaning of different gestures, a 3D modelling of my movements as I mimed wrapping a package, a dialect mapping and recognition game, and an eye-tracking experiment where I had to identify the meaning of Dutch words while looking at non-corresponding images. After each experiment, the researchers discussed the results, an inspiring reminder that language is a common thread that we all share.

The other major highlight of the festival were the seminars. The ones that I attended were mostly focused on language education and multilingualism. Eowyn Crisfield, an educational consultant who has a fantastic blog On Raising Bilingual Children talked about the prevalence of “high status bilingualism” in schools, in other words the fact that bilingualism is generally praised as a good thing when it concerns “valuable” languages such as English, French and Mandarin, but brushed aside or even discouraged when “low status” languages are involved, particularly immigrant and minority languages. In the Netherlands (and elsewhere for that matter), you have “additive” bilingual programs that seek to add “valuable” languages to a child’s repertoire (English/French immersion for example) and “subtractive” programs that often suppress the mother tongue and push non-Dutch speaking children to speak Dutch. In many cases, the former is for the rich and the latter for the poor. What people tend to forget is that in terms of cognitive development, all language combinations are equally beneficial to the child and the mother tongue is absolutely critical to the construction of their identity. For this reason, the language spoken at home, whatever it is, needs to be celebrated and fostered.

Another project that piqued my interest was, a website devoted to educating parents of multilingual children. What makes a child bilingual? Does watching Pippa Pig in Spanish or learning a few Chinese songs in school count? What about children who understand one of their parents’ languages but don’t speak it? What’s the best way to plan language use in multilingual households? Meertalig seeks to dispel myths about multilingual children and presents a wide variety of example cases. They also offer a great overview of the language development phases in monolingual and bilingual children. Since the website is only in Dutch, I’ll summarize here:

Up until the age of 6 months, all babies make the same babbles… “mamamama” “dadadada” etc. But afterwards, you can start to make out differences based on their language. At around 12 months, the child says their first word. Starting at 13 months, he/she starts learning synonyms. This means that multilingual children can start learning words that mean the same thing in different languages. At around 19-20 months, children begin making language choices. Both monolingual and bilingual children start to make sentences like “juice all gone”, and bilingual children can start distinguishing between languages. They begin to realize, for example, that mom says “juice” and dad says “sapje.” They may also start code-switching, or mixing languages together in a single sentence. This is normal and a sign of cognitive development. By the age of 5, children generally know the entire grammar of their language(s) and are able to separate them from one another. Fascinating, right?

Finally, there was the keynote speech by cognitive scientist and Searle scholar Lera Boroditsky: How languages and cultures shape the way we think. I had neglected to make a reservation and I ended up waiting outside the door to get one of the last remaining seats (sorry to the door monitor who I nearly knocked over as I pushed my way in!). So does the language we speak influence the way we think? To answer this question Boroditsky brought up many more: Do we all talk/think about time the same way? Apparently not, there are indigenous people in New Guinea who orient time spatially rather than linearly. There’s another tribe in the Amazon whose language lacks a system for numbers. Are children sensitive to grammatical gender? They are actually. In an experiment where children from different languages were asked to give a voice to an inanimate object, like a toaster for example, those from “gendered” languages were more likely to give the object or male or female voice. Does linguistic framing matter for blame and punishment?  It does indeed! The words used to describe a news event, take the famous Janet Jackson “wardrobe malfunction” at the 2004 Superbowl for example (“wardrobe malfunction” wasn’t even a term before this happened and now it is widely known), have an effect on who the listener thinks is guilty. So in short yes, language does shape the way we think… in more ways than one! If you’re interested in Boroditsky’s work, check out this interview she did with the John Adams Institute.

In sum, I really enjoyed the festival and was pleasantly surprised by the value for the price. I definitely plan on attending again next year and highly recommend it to fellow language professionals in the Netherlands.

September 8, 2016

French words from a past life

What I love most about French is the loose precision of its words. How a single word can refer to something so specific, yet conjure up so many other memories. To the English tongue, a French word can sound so vaguely familiar, as if you could have known it in a past life, but lost it somewhere down the line. In translation, you meet again. I like this feeling.


In his letters from exile, Victor Hugo wrote, “In the French language, there is a great gulf between prose and poetry; in English, there is hardly any difference. It is a splendid privilege of the great literary languages Greek, Latin, and French that they possess a prose. English has not this privilege. There is no prose in English. ”

Oh mais oui ze great French privilège! I’m not sure how well-versed Hugo really was in English prose, but I do agree that the French language allows for the use old classical words without sounding contrived – an effect that makes reading a good book feel more special, more sacred.

Lately, I’ve been translating a book sample for a publisher in Paris and have been keeping track of literary words and expressions that strike me. Here are a few from my list:

1. embraser : to set ablaze, to ignite

2. psalmodier: to sing in monotone, to chant

3. avoir la langue pâteuse: to have a doughy tongue

4. les entrailles: abdominal organs, innards, guts

5. se faufiler: to slip into somewhere and to weave in and out

6. ignorer: to not know or be unaware of something (not necessarily to just ignore it)

7. concupiscence: a natural affinity for material or earthly goods, particularly sensual pleasures

8. tohu-bohu:  disorder and confusion, comes from Hebrew for the formless state of the world before Creation.

9. épanouir: to open a flower by pulling its petals

10. effleurer: to just barely touch the surface of something

July 20, 2016

Camping Croatia: 6 Camps for Tents


This summer we flew from Amsterdam to Dubrovnik with one overweight suitcase crammed with a tent, two mattresses, a gas stove, bedding, a change of clothes and a trusty ANWB road map. No plans. No guidebook. Just a two-week Fiat Panda rental and enough time to re-train ourselves in the art of relaxation. And what a country it was!

Our road map had little tent symbols all over it, signalling campgrounds. We took this as a good sign. But we quickly discovered that not all camps are created equal and not all offer the kind of quiet, natural tent camping experience that we were looking for. But we managed to find a few gems! As a way to remember them for our next trip to Croatia (hopefully soon!) and also to help anyone who might be planning a similar trip themselves, here are six wonderful campsites in Croatia that we would happily go back to:

1. Autocamp Marinaro

(Located in Molunat, the southern-most village in Croatia, 15-20€/night)

Driving down the dusty road at the end of the long coastal highway, we felt like we were driving to the edge of the world. The road emptied into a small, rocky cove full of fishing boats. The last harbor in Croatia before Montenegro. We had seen on our road map that there were two campgrounds down there, but it seemed too remote to believe. Against all logic, we emailed to see if they were open. No reply. So we drove all the way there to find out and ended up at Autocamp Marinaro, a one-star camping on the sea with no Wifi and only the amenities that you really need. The showers were clean and each site had been lovingly shaded with grape vines and screens against the sun. That night, we feasted on scampi, sardines and anchovies and fed the fish heads to the cats.



2. Camp Bacinska Jezera 

(near Plocé, in the agricultural valley on Highway 8, €18-25/night)

Of all of the places that we camped, this was the only one on a freshwater lake. And it was definitely one of our favorites. Diving into the cool spring water in the hottest hour of the afternoon was heavenly. This small campground in the backyard of the owner’s house has perfectly maintained facilities (shower, laundry, sinks) and plenty of shade. The owner, who never stops trimming, watering, and chiseling away at his building projects, is bursting with joie-de-vivre. We rented his kayak and paddled across the lake to a small waterfall where you can drink the ice-cold water out of the stream. A little boy and his grandpa eagerly filled our water bottles as if it were the medicine that would cure whatever we got. We bought wine from plastic vats in a neighbor’s cellar and watched the European Championship at the local bar.




3. Camping Slapic

(located in Duga Resa, village near Karlovac, on the Mreznica River, €25-27/night)

We left the coast and headed inland toward Zagreb. The high cliffs from the seaside give way to rolling hills and farmhouses, abandoned barns that still bear the scars of war, farm stands selling sheep cheese and honey, tractors blocking traffic and fields of corn and bright yellow colza. Though the camping options are much more limited off the coast, we managed to find “The Best Camping in Croatia” in Duga Resa on the Mreznica River. Whether it really was “the best” is disputable, but it was definitely a nice one. We were greeted by a retired mechanic who did not actually work at the campground, but who eagerly chatted with us in German (or something like German) as we set up our tent. He would have stayed and talked all afternoon if we hadn’t insisted on renting a canoe to paddle down the river. The current was strong and we were clumsy canoeing partners. We returned the boat after 15 minutes and they didn’t charge us.




4. Autocamp Krvavica

(located in Krvavica, Makarska Riviera on the Adriatic Sea, €20-25/night)

In a region overrun with noisy sun seekers and party boats, this small family campground stands for all of the nostalgic reasons that we still go camping. Since it is not directly on the sea (but a mere 100 m. away!) and the steep windy road down from the highway is treacherous for heavy loads, it doesn’t attract big caravans. Yet, of all the of the campgrounds that we stayed at, this one offered the most amenities: a bar with hot coffee and cold beers for 1€, bathrooms and showers with hair dryers and even a curling iron (?!), a giant refrigerator with baskets for each campsite, and bread service in the morning. We stayed here early on in our trip and again at the end for one night when we couldn’t find a good camping. The owners welcomed us back like old friends and we told them that after all of the dirty, crowded campsites we had seen that day, theirs was a wonderful oasis.




5. Camping Prapatno

(near Ston, at the ferry harbor to the Island of Mljet, €25-27/night)

After spending our first night in Dubrovnik, this was our first campground. Actually, it was the first campground that we found, and it was perfect. It’s actually an olive orchard that generates a little extra income off of campers in the summer time. At night it was dead quiet, only the plops of green olives dropping from the trees. The campsite opened directly to the beach (one of the only sand beaches we found in Croatia), which had a small cafe and a stand selling ice cream and corn-on-the-cob. We stayed for two nights only because we were eager to get a move on, but we would have gladly lingered a bit longer.




6. Camping Adriasol

(Located in Novigrad, about an hour inland from Sibenik, €22-25/night)

If it sounds like it was easy to just stumble on these beautiful campsites, it wasn’t. At least not all of the time. One day in particular, we were driving up the coast between Split and Sibenik in despair. There were hundreds of campsites, and all of them terrible. By terrible, I mean crowded, shadeless parking lots full of caravans with grumbling generators, shouting sun-burnt people, fussy children and barking dogs. It was getting late and we still hadn’t found anywhere to sleep, so we turned off the coast and took our chances on a campground a bit inland: Adriasol. What a gem it was! Located on a secluded inlet at the edge of Novigrad, a village that was once a resort town for aristocrats during the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Aside from a few campers, there were no tourists, no souvenir shops, no beach rentals. During the day, we swam and waited out the heat from our shady corner plot. And in the golden evening hours, we went into the village and watched the same scenes from the evening before unfold like clockwork. The men gathered to play jeu de boules, the children set off for the forest on their bikes, the same old woman shuffled by with her dog, a mother pulled in the laundry hanging from the balcony, a man popped popcorn in his stand on the boulevard, a waiter pulled up a bag of mussels chilling at the bottom of the lake for dinner, and on and on. Night after night. We were endlessly charmed by this place, even more so because of the struggle it took to find it.



Places that tent campers should avoid:

Trogir – Okrug Donji

On the coastal road from Split to Sibenik, there are lots of campgrounds, but most of them are not suited to nature-loving tent campers (at least not in high season!). This is an area to avoid – particularly around Trogir. It’s a pity because Trogir is supposed to be a beautiful World Heritage site, but we were not able to appreciate it with all of the crowds. There is an innocent-looking little island across from the city gates called Okrung Donji, covered in little tent symbols on the map. Seemed worth a look. Tired, hungry, and overheated we battled through the bottleneck traffic over the bridge determined to give the campsites a fair chance. We nearly wrecked our car trying to get to them and when we finally got there we found nothing but caravans packed in like sardines and shrimp-like Europeans roasting on a tiny, treeless rock beach. Surely it was once a lovely natural place, but it’s been ruined by “holiday makers”.

Senj to Zadar coast

On our way South from Zagreb, we decided head back down on the coastal highway from Senj to Zadar. A beautiful route for sure with magnificent views of sea and sky, but also an exhausting one to drive. Endless hair pin turns, ups and downs and few places to stop. Compared to the South (Dubrovnik area), it’s also extremely dry and rocky. There are a few campgrounds, but they seemed to offer very little shelter from the Croatian sun.

June 20, 2016

The Intimacy of Teaching English


While translating and editing tend to be rather impersonal (just you, the text, and your best guess at what the writer is trying to say), teaching English is precisely the opposite. I like the balance between the two. Over the past few months, I’ve been swamped with teaching jobs: group courses at corporate headquarters, an academic writing course at a university, private lessons to teens, professionals, retirees, moms, the newly employed, the recently unemployed and new arrivals to the Netherlands. And what I’ve learned over almost eight years of teaching English off and on in various contexts is that beyond all the grammar, all the role plays and exercises and vocabulary lists, teaching language can be a very personal, intimate business.

What’s the starting point for learning a new language? Talking about yourself. The first phrases you learn in a language course always seem to be “My name is…”, “I am from…”, “I like to…”. Language is one of the fundamental things that makes us who we are. In any given situation, we use words to construct our identity, and the words that we have available to us in that situation, in whatever language, determine how others see us and even more so, how we see ourselves.

My students, especially those in one-on-one sessions, often come to me when they are already undergoing some kind of shift in identity; learning a new language is only one part of it. I’ve had people who are going through a mid-life career change, people who have recently graduated, and people who have just moved abroad. I also get people who are starting over – one woman who was preparing for a trip around the world after losing her husband just a few weeks prior, a pre-teenager who had just switched schools due to discipline problems, a woman who had spontaneously just moved out on her boyfriend of 15 years. And what I find is that learning a new language gives a new way of talking about yourself, a new way of looking at your life, and a new bridge for dealing with change. And while it’s true that I can go on and on about the present perfect tense all day, I’ve come to realize that more often than not, being a language teacher forces me into the role of empathetic, albeit under-qualified, “life coach.” And in some of my most successful courses, it was the students, not I, who did most of the talking.

Once while discussing professional clothing vocabulary (suit, tie, belt, jacket...), a student started telling an entire group of colleagues exactly what his father wore in his casket. Another time, while discussing careers and professions (accountant, lawyer, plumber, dentist, priest…), I ended up hearing about how mediocre and disappointing my student’s children were. And while discussing food, a topic that everyone seems to love, I often hear stories of home – places that people long to go back to, but for some complicated reason can not. Simple questions with purely didactic intentions, such as, “What did you do this weekend?” “What’s your family like?” “Where did you grow up?” can lead to incredibly intimate answers. Sometimes I meet students in a shared office space that is used by a lot of independent therapists and psychologists. For this reason, each room is equipped with a big box of tissues, but somewhere between adverbs and prepositions, my clients and I are the ones who end up using them.

Of course it’s not all about tears and heart-to-hearts, there are also people who need to learn English to “get ahead.” In sociolinguistics, we also know that language, identity and power are intrinsically linked. From a social perspective, there are “weak” languages (those that are not considered valuable, often spoken by minorities) and there are “strong” languages (those that have have, for example, economic or social value). And consciously or not, people tend to internalize this notion of weak vs. strong depending on the languages they speak and how well they speak them. Since I’ve lived in Europe, I’ve become hyper aware of the fact that my mother tongue happens to be one of the “strongest” languages in the world. Which means that I have found myself spending hours a week with managers and CEOs at major companies, internationally recognized professors and other people who are much further along in life than I am, but who need me to teach them to communicate. And by communicate, I’m not only talking about subject-verb agreement, but also how to negotiate, how to solve problems, how to be tactful, how to weasel out of difficult situations. I am a linguist, not a lawyer, finance expert or HR specialist, but because of my language and its perceived power, I get pushed into these roles all the time.

The Dutch, as we all know, like to get to the point, they’re direct, straightforward - a sociologist might call them a “truth-sensitive” culture (meaning that they tend to always tell the truth, ruthlessly if necessary). In my Business English courses in the Netherlands, we often have to spend a significant amount of time discussing phrases like “I would be happy to…”, “Please don’t hesitate to…”, “I would appreciate it if you could…”, all of which illicit vomiting, finger-to-throat gestures from my Dutch students. So there I am, teaching what the English simply call “manners” to successful, professional, perfectly grown adults. When I was living in Switzerland and teaching French-speakers, it was the opposite: I had to convince them to stop calling everyone “dear Sir” and to let go of all of their “with great pleasures” and “most cordial salutations.”

In short, language cannot be taught without teaching the culture that comes with it. And addressing culture means addressing the identities of those who consider themselves inside and outside of it. Murakami, an author I love, says that “Learning another language is like becoming another person.” It’s something that I often bring up to my students in the throws of these personal conversations. Sometimes they ask, “So does that mean that I have a different personality in a different language?” Not exactly. It means that by using new words, phrases, metaphors and manners of speech, you see and portray yourself differently, you become a different version of you. It can be like a blank slate. Even more than teaching grammar and vocabulary, I like bearing witness to this process and living it myself as a language learner.



March 15, 2016

Tolk- en Vertaalcongres 2016: Hilversum


It was nice to meet a few Dutch and Belgian agencies that I didn’t know were out there, but the real highlight of the Tolk- en Vertaalcongres 2016 (Interpretation and Translation Conference 2016) was talking with people who also do what I do, many of whom have been doing it much longer. For those of us who work mostly at our keyboards, meeting up with colleagues in the flesh comes as a great relief. “Oh your Trados crashes all the time too?” “Have you actually tried that voice recognition software?” “Do you know anything about this agency or that agency?” You realize that you are not alone in your translating solitude and that among colleagues, the conference theme really is true, “Samen kom je verder!”  

At one point, a translator took the mic and encouraged the audience not to think of each other as competition, but rather as colleagues – that we are all in this together. I really took this to heart. Not only do I find friends in the people who love languages as much as I do, but I find that I can lean on them for support. We can pass each other projects, share insight, discuss “untranslateables” and roll our eyes at all the nonsense that is bouncing around out there in the translation world.

One of the most interesting moments in the conference (shown in the photo above) was an open discussion on “Is er een toegevoegde waarde van bemiddelaars?”  (or Do middlemen offer added value?). Starting out with a mixed panel of agency reps and professionals and later bringing in translators and interpreters from the audience, the conversation quickly turned into a sort of ping-pong match. When the question was raised as to whether translators and interpreters are really ondernemers (entrepreneurs), things got a little feisty. As independent professionals who spend hours upon hours every week going after new clients, managing projects, negotiating contracts, and marketing services, it seemed ludicrous to many that this question would even be asked! Of course we are…do you have any idea what we actually do?! Yet there were some on stage who preferred to think that their bureau was playing the true “entrepreneur” role by bringing in the clients and that their freelancers merely – they all but said it out loud! - worked for them. Well, this did not sit well.

As multi-lingual professionals, we are constantly fighting the commonly held notion that we are language machines. That somehow, we can easily input a text in one language and output it in another and should therefore be happy to accept a nominal fee for this so-called service. This belief is even stronger toward people who work in minority and non-European languages, the idea that growing up speaking a faraway language makes translating / interpreting it a breeze. It’s not surprising when people outside of the language industry think this, but when an agency that depends on our services seems to think it too, it’s very disappointing. As one panel member proclaimed, “Translation needs to be valued as an intellectual service!”

If we had it our way, I think that most of us would love to work for direct clients only. From a financial point of view, who wouldn’t want to cut out the middlemen? The thing is that big brands tend to hire big brands, and when it’s just you and your computer, it can be hard to access the clients who need your services the most. So yes, we sometimes need the middlemen. But they need us too. And I think, at the heart of it all, what the audience resented most was the underlying implication that language professionals are a dime a dozen. That our skills, diplomas, experience, reliability, availability, flexibility, not to mention knowledge of random topics like watch-making, hydraulic valve systems, international tax legislation (yes, I have translated texts on all of the above) – can all be replaced by the next bilingual person for a few cents less.

Now this is not the case with all agencies. In fact, I work for several on a regular basis that are truly wonderful. My project managers know me, their rate is fair and consistent – I feel valued. I don’t resent the fact that they take a cut for my work, because they are offering me a genuine service too – bringing me clients. And for them, I truly enjoy delivering my best. As the old management saying goes, “People who feel valued will always exceed expectations.” With a good agency and a good project manager, I at least get the sense that we are in this together and I am willing to go above and beyond.

So the question, Do middlemen offer added value? If they are doing their part by bringing us steady clients and offering fair rates and fewer headaches, then I say yes. Just like I don’t mind my accountant taking a cut from my tax return, I don’t mind a few cents per word going to a project manager to handle clients for me. But when it starts coming down to quantity over quality, endless discount requests, fuzzies and half-cents, and the question of who’s working for who, you start to realize that “samen,” only some people are going farther, and those people are not you.

For more information about the wonderful Tolk- en Vertaalcongres, check out their website. If you have any comments or takeaway points from this year’s conference, I’d love to read them in the comments!